- NSF data: Thirty-Three Years of Women in S&E Faculty Positions – NSF
- 2011 AAAS survey – Women Face More Hurdles in Science Careers, Survey Shows
On gender bias in academia:
- Gender Bias in Academe: An Annotated Bibliography of Important Recent Studies from HASTAC
- Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses Discussing the underrepresentation of women in science had a significant positive effect on female students. Other factors studied, with non-significant effects, included having a single-sex class, having a female teacher, having female scientist guest speakers, and discussing worm of female scientists in class.
- Gender Equality at Meetings: Why it’s important and how ACNP did it, while increasing attendees’ ratings of scientific quality of the meeting.
- Science and Sexism: In the Eye of the Twitterstorm. “Social media has enabled an increasingly public discussion about the persistent problem of sexism in science…Such events often have far-reaching and unpredictable consequences — for participants as well as targets.”
- Elite male faculty in the life sciences employ fewer women. “[O]ne cause of the leaky pipeline in biomedical research may be the exclusion of women, or their self-selected absence, from certain high-achieving laboratories.”
- Sex Differences in Institutional Support for Junior Biomedical Researchers. “Men had higher support regardless of degree, but the difference was statistically significant only for persons with PhD degrees. In basic sciences, men reported significantly more start-up support than women. Start-up support for clinical scientists was not significantly different for men and women.”
- Quality of evidence revealing subtle gender biases in science is in the eye of the beholder. “These results suggest a relative reluctance among men, especially faculty men within STEM, to accept evidence of gender biases in STEM. This finding is problematic because broadening the participation of underrepresented people in STEM, including women, necessarily requires a widespread willingness (particularly by those in the majority) to acknowledge that bias exists before transformation is possible.”
- The Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women Are Over-Represented in Precarious Leadership Positions. “This hypothesis was investigated in an archival study examining the performance of FTSE 100 companies before and after the appointment of a male or female board member. The study revealed that during a period of overall stock-market decline those companies who appointed women to their boards were more likely to have experienced consistently bad performance in the preceding five months than those who appointed men. These results expose an additional, largely invisible, hurdle that women need to overcome in the workplace.”
- Why Women Apologize More Than Men: Gender Differences in Thresholds for Perceiving Offensive Behavior “This finding suggests that men apologize less frequently than women because they have a higher threshold for what constitutes offensive behavior. As predicted, men rated the offenses as less severe than women did. These different ratings of severity predicted both judgments of whether an apology was deserved and actual apology behavior.”
- Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students “Faculty participants rated the male applicant as significantly more competent and hireable than the (identical) female applicant. These participants also selected a higher starting salary and offered more career mentoring to the male applicant. The gender of the faculty participants did not affect responses, such that female and male faculty were equally likely to exhibit bias against the female student.”
On intersectionality and the unique challenges faced by women of color:
- Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color. This paper coined the term “intersectionality” and incorporates many modern feminist concepts.
- The Disability Employment Puzzle: A Field Experiment on Employer Hiring Behavior. “The fictional applicants with disabilities received 26% fewer expressions of employer interest than those without disabilities, with little difference between the two types of disability. The disability gap was concentrated among more experienced applicants, and among private companies with fewer than 15 employees that are not covered by the ADA, although comparable state statutes cover about half of them…The overall pattern of findings is consistent with the idea that disability discrimination continues to impede employment prospects of people with disabilities, and more attention needs to be paid to employer behavior and the demand side of the labor market for people with disabilities.”
- Double Jeopardy? Gender Bias Against Women of Color in Science. “100% of the sixty scientists interviewed for this study reported encountering one or more of these patterns of gender bias… This report’s focus on women of color is designed to address an oft-noted problem: that women’s initiatives are seen as ‘White women’s initiatives.’ Thus an Asian-American science professor said her colleague of color ‘felt that the committee on faculty women really should have been renamed the committee on White faculty women.’”
- Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. “To manipulate perceived race, resumes are randomly assigned African-American- or White-sounding names. White names receive 50 percent more callbacks for interviews. Callbacks are also more responsive to resume quality for White names than for African-American ones.”
- Temporal Distance and Discrimination: An Audit Study in Academia. “Through a field experiment set in academia (with a sample of 6,548 professors), we found that decisions about distant-future events were more likely to generate discrimination against women and minorities (relative to Caucasian males) than were decisions about near-future events.”